Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Distribution of Mycoflora and Assessment of Moisture Content Measurement Methods of Indian Bakery Food Products

Mycotoxins are toxic food pollutants that are created naturally by some fungus. By contaminating food, they have a harmful impact on human health. This study's major objective was to simulate food products from bakeries being contaminated. Separate bakery food samples were examined to see whether fungus and associated mycotoxins were present. One hundred fifty-nine (159) bakery food samples were collected randomly from different shops in rural sides and around Davangere city, during July to November 2022. Qualitatively, maximum number of molds were isolated and identified from bakery food samples. The most common species are Trichoderma harzianum, A. niger, Rhizopus, A. flavus, Penicillium sp, Curvularia sp, A. parasiticus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus sp, Fusarium sp, Trichoderma sp, Alternaria sp and Mucor sp. The moisture content was found to be maximum in sweets made from dry fruits and milk followed by cakes, burfi, cookies, bread etc and minimum growth were observed in chips. Results regarding moisture content of bakery food products showed that, NS41-NS159 samples had high moisture content 60%, followed by NS1-NS11 (49.8%), NS12-NS20 (49.8%), NS21-NS35 (37.8%) and NS36-NS40 (13.6%) respectively. Results in moisture content determination in bakery food products reveals that high moisture content causes maximum growth of microorganisms on bakery food samples. Statical analysis showed that storage had a significant effect on moisture content of bakery food products.

Fungal Spoilage, Moisture Content, Aspergillus Flavus, Penicillium Sp, Curvularia Sp, A. Parasiticus

Sowmya K. L., Ramalingappa B. (2023). Distribution of Mycoflora and Assessment of Moisture Content Measurement Methods of Indian Bakery Food Products. Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 11(4), 126-131.

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Patil VS, Kukade PD. Fungal spoilage of Bakery products and its control measures. Wor. J. Pharamaceutical. 2003, 1: 167-181.
2. Ben Taheur F, Kouidhi B, Al Qurashi YMA, Ben Salah-Abbes J, Chaieb K. Review: biotechnology of mycotoxins detoxification using microorganisms and enzymes. Toxicon. 2019, 160: 12–22.
3. Abellana M, Ramos AJ, Sachis V. Nielsen PV. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging and water activity on growth of Eurotium amstelodami, E. Chevelieri and E. Herbariorum on a spongy cake analogue. J. App. Microbiol. 2020, 88: 606- 616.
4. Abellana M, sanchis U, Ramos AJ. Effect of water activity and temperature on growth of three Penicillium Sp. and Aspergillus flavus on a spongy cake analogue. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 1996, 71: 3151-3157.
5. Bailey CP, Holy AV. Bacillus spore contamination associated with commercial bread manufacture. Food Microbiol. 1993, 10: 287- 294.
6. Cornea CP, Ciuca M. Incidence of fungal contamination in a Romanian bakery: A molecular approach. Rom. Biotechnol. Lett. 2011, 16: 5863-5871.
7. Suhr KI, Nielsen PV. (2004). Effect of weak acid preservatives on growth of bakery products spoilage fungi at different water activity and pH values. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2004, 95: 67-78.
8. Zambrano MV, Dutta B, Mercer DG, MacLean HL, Touchie MF. Assessment of moisture content measurement methods of dried food products in small-scale operations in developing countries: A review. Trends Food Sci Technol. 2019, 88, 484-496.
9. Hailu G, Derbew B. Extent, causes and reduction strategies of postharvest losses of fresh fruits and vegetables − A review. J. boil. Agric. Hea. care. 2015, 5: 49-64.
10. Zhang L, Sun DW, Zhang Z. Methods for measuring water activity (aw) of foods and its applications to moisture sorption isotherm studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017, 57 (5): 1052-1058.
11. Ogawa T, Adachi S. Measurement of moisture profiles in pasta during rehydration based on image processing. Food Bioproc Tech. 2014, (5): 1465-1471.
12. Mohamed Hashem. Isolation of Mycotoxin producing Fungi from fishes growing in Aquacultures. Res. J. Microbiol. 2011, 6 (12): 862-872.
13. Pundir RK, Jain P. Qualitative and Quantitative analysis of microflora of Indian bakery products. J. Agric Technol. 2011, 7 (3): 751-762.
14. Ming-Tzai chen., Yuan-Hsin Hsu., Tzu-Sui Wang. and Shi-Wern Chien. (2016). Mycotoxin monitoring for commercial foodstuffs in Taiwan. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. 24: 147-156.
15. Domsch KH, Gams W. Anderson TH. Compendium of soil fungi. Academic press. London, New York, Toronto, Sydney, San Francisco, 1980, p. 859.
16. Subramanian CV. Hyphomycetes, taxonomy and biology. London. New York. Academic press; p. 1983, 410-461.
17. Ellis MB, Ellis JP. Microfungi on Land plants: An Identification Handbook. Richmond Publishers, London: Croom Helm; 1997, p. 1-868.
18. Gilman JC. A manual of soil fungi. 2nd edition. Biotech books. New Delhi; 2001, p. 1-392.
19. Nagamani A, Kunwar IK, Manoharachary C. Hand book of soil fungi. I K International Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi. 2006.
20. Leuschner RGK, O’Callaghan MJA, Arendt EK. Optimization of baking parameters of part baked and rebaked Irish brown soda bread by evaluation of some quality characteristics. Int. J. Food Sci. 1997, 32: 487-493.
21. Kirschner LM, Van Holy A. Rope spoilage of bread. S. Afr. J. Sci. 2011, 85: 425.
22. Frazier WC, Westhoff DE. Food Microbiology. 4th edition. New Age International Publishers. New Delhi; 2003, p. 607.
23. Ogundare AO, Adetuyi FC. Studies on the microbial population of bread baked with wheat from south western Nigeria. J Food Agric Environ. 2003; 85-87.
24. Aneja KR. Experiments in Microbiology, Plant Pathology and Biotechnology. 4th edition. New Age International Publishers. New Delhi. 2003, p. 607.