Volume 3, Issue 1-2, February 2015, Page: 165-170
Effectiveness of Irradiation Treatment in Eliminating E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in Dried Organic Herb Samples Intended for Use in Blended Tea
Sharmin Zaman, Center for Advanced Research in Sciences, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh
Md. Khorshed Alam, Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Md. Firoz Mortuza, Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Md. Latiful Bari, Center for Advanced Research in Sciences, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh
Received: Dec. 3, 2014;       Published: Jan. 30, 2015
DOI: 10.11648/j.jfns.s.2015030102.42      View  3519      Downloads  211
Blended tea with different herbs, seeds and dehydrated vegetable substances bring a world of flavours, aromas and colours to tea. Tea is usually made with dried tea leaves, or blended with other dried herbs and pouring boiling water over the leaves and letting them stay for a few minutes and then sip. This study was done to evaluate the microbial contamination of dried organic lemongrass, mint and jasmine samples intended to prepare flavoured tea and also to see the effect of gamma irradiation in inactivating microorganisms in dried organic herbs (lemongrass, mint and jasmine) samples intended to prepare flavoured tea. Presence of higher number of generic E. coli and pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 in dried organic lemongrass, mint, and jasmine samples, and blended tea samples were observed. No Salmonella was detected in dried lemongrass sample; however, presence of Salmonella was evident in mint and jasmine samples. Application of 2.0 kGy irradiation dose was able to successfully eliminate the pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in lemongrass, mint and jasmine samples. In addition, the aerobic bacterial count was also reduced to <100 CFU/g in dried lemongrass or other tea samples. This finding suggested that application of 2.0 kGy dose of irradiation could successfully eliminate the pathogens and provide safe food with lower bacterial content compared to non-irradiated herbs for human consumption.
Organic Herbs, Lemongrass, Mint, Jasmine, E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Irradiation
To cite this article
Sharmin Zaman, Md. Khorshed Alam, Md. Firoz Mortuza, Md. Latiful Bari, Effectiveness of Irradiation Treatment in Eliminating E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in Dried Organic Herb Samples Intended for Use in Blended Tea, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. Special Issue: Food Processing and Food Quality. Vol. 3, No. 1-2, 2015, pp. 165-170. doi: 10.11648/j.jfns.s.2015030102.42
ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). (2000). Practice for using the Fricke Reference Standard Dosimetry System, ASTM E1026, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 12.02, Philadelphia, PA. USA.
Abadias, M., Usall, J., Anguera, M., Solsona, C., & Viñas, I. (2008). Microbiological quality of fresh, minimally-processed fruit and vegetables, and sprouts from retail establishments. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 123(1-2), 121–129.
Abba, D., Inabo, H. I., Yakubu, S. E and Olonitola, O. S. (2009). Contamination of herbal medicinal products marketed in Kaduna Metropolis with selected pathogenic bacteria. African Journal of Traditional, Complimentary and Alternative Medicines. Vol.6 (1): 70- 77.
Adeleye, I. A., Okogi, G. and Ojo, E.O. (2005). Microbial contamination of herbal preparations in Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition. 23 (3): 296- 297.
Bari, M. L., Nakauma, M., Todoriki, S., Vijay K. Juneja, Isshiki, K. and S. Kawamoto. (2005). Effectiveness of Irradiation Treatments in Killing Listeria monocytogenes on Fresh Vegetables at Refrigerated Temperature. J. Food Prot. 68:318-323.
Cymbopogon citratus (DC. ex Nees) Stapf. USDA, NRCS. 2008. The PLANTS Database. ( http://plants.usda.gov, 10 December 2008). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874–4490 USA.
Esimone, C.O. Oleghe, P.O. and Ibezim, E.C. (2003). Effect of preservation agents on the microbial stability of some indigenous herbal preparations. Niger J. Pharm 34:37-42.
Espen Rimstad (chair), E. Arne Høiby , Georg Kapperud, Jørgen Lassen, Bjørn Tore Lunestad, Truls Nesbakken, Karin Nygård, Ørjan Olsvik, Lucy Robertson, Michael Tranulis and Morten Tryland. (2008). Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety Panel on Biological Hazards final report on Risk assessment of import and dissemination of intestinal pathogenic bacteria via fresh herbs and leafy vegetables from South-East Asia. ISBN: 978-82-8082-244-4 ; 07/111-final report, pages 2-32.
FAO/WHO (2008) Microbiological hazards in fresh fruits and vegetables. Meeting Report. Microbiological Risk Assessment Series. Available at the following URL and accessed on August 7, 2013. (http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/agns/jemra_riskassessment_freshproduce_en.asp)
Fischer-Arndt, M., Neuhoff, D., Tamm, L., & Köpke, U., (2010). Effects of weed management practices on enteric pathogen transfer into lettuce (Lactucasativa var. capitata). Food Control, 21(7), 1004–1010.
Goodhead, D.T., Thacker, J., Cox, R., 1993. Effects of radiations of different qualities on cells: molecular mechanisms of damage and repair. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 63, 543–546.
Hsu WY, Simonne A, Jitareerat P, Marshall MR Jr.(2010). Low-dose irradiation improves microbial quality and shelf life of fresh mint (Mentha piperita L.) without compromising visual quality. J Food Sci. 75(4):M222-230. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01568.x.
Harwell Amber 3042 Dosimeters. Available at http://www.harwell-dosimeters.co.uk/harwell-amber-3042. Accessed on October 12, 2014.
Ilic, S., Rajic, A., Britton, C., Grasso, E., Wilkens, W., Totton, S., LeJeune, J. (2012). A scoping study characterizing prevalence, risk factor and intervention research, published between 1990 and 2010, for microbial hazards in leafy green vegetables. Food Control, 23, 7-19.
James, J. (2006). Microbial hazard identification in fresh fruits and vegetables. Dublin, Ireland: Wiley-Interscience.
Johannessen, G. S. (2005). Use of manure in production of organic lettuce: Risk of transmission of pathogenic bacteria and bacteriological quality of the lettuce. Oslo, Belgic: Norwegian School of Veterinary Science.
Oyetayo, V. O. (2008). Microbial load and Microbial property of two Nigeria herbal remedies. African Journal of Traditional, Complimentary and Alternative Medicines. Vol. 5(1): 74- 78.
Olaimat, A. N., Holley, R. A. (2012) Factors influencing the microbial safety of fresh produce: a review. Journal of Food Protection, 32 (1), 1-19.
Oliveira, A. B. A., Ritter. A. C., Tondo, E. C., & Cardoso, M. R. de I. (2012). Comparison of different Washing and disinfection protocols used by Food Services in Southern Brazil for Lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Food and Nutrition Sciences, 3, 28-33.
Subha Ganguly 1, Sunit Kumar Mukhopadhayay and Subhasish Biswas. (2012). Preservation of food items by irradiation process. International Journal of Chemical and Biochemical Sciences, 1:11-13
Vidal, R., M. Vidal, R. Lagos, M. Levine and V. Prado. (2004). Multiplex PCR for diagnosis of enteric infections associated with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42, 1787
Browse journals by subject