Volume 8, Issue 4, July 2020, Page: 96-102
Effects of Staple-based Mungbean Diets on the Physical and Biochemical Characteristics of School Children (5-12 Years) in Selected Orphanage Homes in Imo State
Agugo Udodiri Agatha, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Sciences, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo, Ohaji, Nigeria
Asinobi Chinagorom Onyemaechi, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria
Afam-Anene Olivia Chinyere, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria
Received: Jun. 30, 2020;       Accepted: Jul. 14, 2020;       Published: Jul. 28, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.jfns.20200804.14      View  15      Downloads  4
Abstract
The study investigated the effect of staple-based mungbean diets on the physical and biochemical characteristics of school children (5-12 years) in selected orphanage homes in Imo State. Experimental research design was employed. Five (5) government approved homes were purposively selected, and a total of 95 subjects randomly sampled to the experimental (50) and control (45) groups across the homes. Staple-based mungbean diets replaced one of the daily three square meals of subjects in the experimental groups for a period of six months. After intervention, Body Mass Index of male (16.7 Kg/m2 to 16.4 Kg/m2) and female (17.5 Kg/m2 to 16.9 Kg/m2) subjects in the experimental groups reduced while Body Mass Index of male (17.8 Kg/m2 to 18.7Kg/m2) and female (15.9Kg/m2 to 16.8 Kg/m2) subjects in the control groups slightly increased, though not significant (p<0.05). Generally, biochemical characteristics of subjects in the experimental and control groups improved after six months. Significant (p<0.05) improvement was observed in the hemoglobin (6.7%), serum iron (29.8%) and TIBC (4.3%) of subjects in the experimental group, while the improvement observed in the hemoglobin (2.8%), serum iron (10.9%), and TIBC (1.1%) levels of subjects in the control group were not significant. Serum zinc level of subjects in the experimental (43.2%) and control (12.9%) groups significantly improved and clinical signs (skin rashes) significantly reduced (100%). It could be concluded that staple-based mungbean diets probably improved the physical and biochemical characteristics of school children studied. Therefore, are recommended for the feeding of growing children especially the school aged (5-12 years).
Keywords
Staple-based, Mungbean Diets, Physical, Biochemical, Intervention
To cite this article
Agugo Udodiri Agatha, Asinobi Chinagorom Onyemaechi, Afam-Anene Olivia Chinyere, Effects of Staple-based Mungbean Diets on the Physical and Biochemical Characteristics of School Children (5-12 Years) in Selected Orphanage Homes in Imo State, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. Vol. 8, No. 4, 2020, pp. 96-102. doi: 10.11648/j.jfns.20200804.14
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
UNICEF/World Health Organization (WHO)/World Bank Group (2018). Global Nutrition Report. The burden of malnutrition. Joint child malnutrition estimate. https://globalnutritionreport.org/reports/global-nutrition-report 2018/burden- malnutrition/. Retrieved 09/11/2019.
[2]
Abdullateef, U., and Ijaiya, A. (2010). Agricultural trade liberalization and food security in Nigeria. Journal of Economics and International Finance, 2: 299-307.
[3]
British Nutrition Foundation (2018). A charity registered in Scotland (Sco40061). www.nutrition.or.uk
[4]
ACC/SCN (2012). Second Report on the World Nutrition Situation. Vol. 1. Global and regional results. Geneva Adewara, S. O. and Visser, M. (2011). Use of anthropometric measures to analyze how sources of water and sanitation affect children’s health in Nigeria. Environment for Development Discussion Paper Series, pp. 11-20.
[5]
Fleck, H. (2001). Introduction to nutrition: The third Edition Macmillan publishing Co. Inc. New York.
[6]
UNICEF (1995). The state of the worlds children: focus on nutrition. Available: www.unicef.org/sowc/archive/ENGLISH/The%state%2. Retrieved 12/02/2012
[7]
Ene-Obong, H. N., and Ekweagwu, E. (2012). Dietary Habits and Nutritional status of rural school age children in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Nutrition Sciences, 33 (1), 23-30.
[8]
International Food Policy Research Institute (2018). 2018 Global food policy report. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute. https://doi.org/10.2499/9780896292970.
[9]
Adewara, S. O. and Visser, M. (2011). Use of anthropometric measures to analyze how sources of water and sanitation affect children’s health in Nigeria. Environment for Development Discussion Paper Series, pp. 11- 20.
[10]
Satayanamyana, A. P., Seenaiah, M. U., Rahman, V., and Naidu N. U. (1996). Improvement of mungbean for rice fallows, P. 137. In: Ashana A. M and D. H Kim (eds). Recent advances in Mungbean research Kanpar, India. India Institute of Pulse Research. Pp 210.
[11]
Agugo, U. A and Onimawo A. I. (2009). Effect of heat treatment on the Nutritional Value of mungbean. Nigerian Journal of Nutrition Science, 30 (2), pp. 10-15.
[12]
Gopalan, C., Rama B. V., Sastri, and Balasubramanian S, C. (2000). Nutritive value of Indian foods. Indian Council of Medical Research, 5, 10-15.
[13]
Vijayalakshmi, P., Amirthaveni S., and Devadas, R. P. (2001). Possibilities of increasing bioavailability of iron from mungbean and study on the effects of its supplementation on children and women. Project Report. Coimbatore, India: Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore, India
[14]
Pal, M., Brahmachary, K. L and Ghosh, M. (2010). Comparative studies on physicochemical and biochemical characteristics of scented and non –scented strains of mungbean (Vigna radiata) of Indian origin. Legume Research. 33: 1-9
[15]
FAO/WHO (1998). Requirements of Vitamin A, Iron, Folate and Vitamin B12, Report of a jiont FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. (Food and Nutrition Series, No. 23) FAO, Rome
[16]
Axe, F. (2017). Mung Beans Nutrition & Its Big Benefits. Available at: https://draxe.com/mung-beans-nutrition/. Retrieved 06/04/2017
[17]
Ramakrishan, M. N., Ray-yuYang Warwick J. E., Dil, T. P., Jacquelin d’AHughes and Keating, J. D. H. (2013). Biofortification of mungbean (Vigna radiata) as a whole food to enhance health. Journal of Science, Food and Agriculture. 93 (8): 1805-13.
[18]
Ruel, M. (2001). Food-based strtegies Help Reduce Vitamin A and Iron deficiencies?International Food Policy Research Institute: Washington.
[19]
Yang, R. Y., Hanson, P. M., and Lumpkin, T. A. (2007). Better health through horticulture-AVRDC’s approach to improve nutrition of the poor. Acta Horticulturae, 744, 71-77.
[20]
Taro Yamane (1967). Statistics, An Introductory Analysis, 2nd Ed., New York: Harper and Row.
[21]
NCHS (2011). National Center for Health Statistics, 311 Toledo Road Room 5419 Hyattsville, MD 2078. 1 (800) 232-463.
[22]
Geisinger Health System (2000-2014). Geisinger Foundation. www.geisinger.org. Accessed 16/08/2018
[23]
Agugo, U. A, Asinobi C. O and, Afam-Anene O. (2019). Evaluating the nutritional and sensory qualities of substituted Staple-Based-Mung bean diets. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. Vol 4 (2). Pp 42-48.
[24]
Agugo, U. A, Asinobi C. O and, Afam-Anene O. (2019). Investigating the nutritional, sensory and Storage qualities of substituted-mungbean garri diet. Journal of Food Technology and preservation, 3 (1): 5-10.
[25]
International Committee for Standardization in Haematology. (1987). (Iron Panel). British Journal of Haematology. 38: 291
[26]
American Public Health Association (1998). 3111B, Direct Air- Acetylene Flame Method, Standard Methods for the examination of metals in blood 20th Edition, APHA, AWWA, WEF 1178-1180.
[27]
World Health Organization. (2007). Child growth Standards. Available at http://www.who.int/growtref/en.2007. Retrieved 12/02/2012
[28]
Ghate, P., and Kotwal, D. (2014). Nutritional status and dietary pattern of 7-9 years school going children in India and Ethiopia. The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies. (ISSN 2321 -9203) www.theijhss.com
[29]
Fetuga, M. B., Ogunlesi, T. A, Adekambi, A. F and Alabi, A. O (2014). Nutritional status of semi –urban Nigerian school children using 2007 WHO Reference population. West African Journal of Medicine, 30 (5), 331-336.
[30]
Anumudu, C. M., Afolami, C., Igwe, M., Nnwagwu, O., and Keshinro, O. (2008). Nutritional anemia and malaria in pre –school and school aged children. Annals of African Medicine, 7 (1), 11-17.
[31]
Hall, A., Bobrow, E, Brooker, S., Jukes, M., Nokes, K., Lambo, J., Guyatt, H, Reandy, D., Adejei, S., Wen, S. T., Subagio, H., Rafiluddin, M. Z., Miguel, T., Moulin, S., de Graft Johnson, J., Mukaka, M., Roschnik, N., Scako, M., Zacher, A., Mahumne, B., Kihamia, C., Mwanri, L., Tatala, S., Lambo, N., Siza, J., Khanh, l. n, Koi, H. H., and Toan, N. D (2000). Anemia in school children in eight countries in Africa and Asia. Public Health Nutrition, 4 (3), 749-756.
[32]
Ukegbu, P. O and Aderibigbe, O. R. (2016). Iron Status, dietary practices and related knowledge among school aged children and their caregivers in Umuahia south local government Area of Abia, State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Nutrition Science. 37 (2): 68-76.
[33]
Agugo, U. A, Asinobi C. O and, Afam-Anene O. (2019). Impact of food consumption pattern on the body mass index (BMI) of school children (5-12 years) in selected motherless and orphanage homes in Imo State. Journal of Nutrition Science and Research, Volume 4 (1): 1-5.
[34]
Hambidge, K. M., Walravens, P. A, Brown, R. M. (1976). Zinc Nutrition of preschool Children in the Denver head start program. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 29 (7), 734‐738.
[35]
Favier, A. E. (1992). Hormonal effects of zinc on growth in children. Biological Trace Element Research, 32, 383-387.
[36]
Villalpando, S., Garcia-Guerra, A., Ramirez-Silva, C. I., MejiaRodriguez, F., Matute, G., Shamah-Levy, T., and Rivera, J. A. (2003). Iron, zinc and iodine status in Mexican children under 12 years and women 12-49 years of age. A probabilistic national survey. Salud Publica de Mexico, 45: S520-S529.
[37]
Sharifi, F., Hedayati, M., Mirmiran, P. (1999). The serum level of Zinc, Cu, iron in elementary students of 23 province of Iran in 1996. Iran Journal of Endocrine Metabolism. 1 (4): 275-285.
[38]
Thurlow, R. A., Winichagoon, P., Pongcharoen, T., Gowachirapant, S., Boonpraderm, A. Manger, M. S., Bailey, K. B., Wasantwisut, E., and Gibson, R. S. (2006). Risk of zinc, iodine and other micronutrient deficiencies among school Children in North East Thailand. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 60: 623-632.
[39]
Gibson, R. S., McKenzie, J. E, Ferguson, E. L., Parnell, W. R., Wilson, N. C., and Russell, D. G. (2003). The Risk of Inadequate Zinc intake in United States and New Zealand. Adults. Nutrition Today, 38, 63-70.
[40]
Golden, B. E. (2013). Infancy, childhood and adolescence. In Human nutrition and Dietetics 10th Edition No. 2, pp. 449-464.
[41]
Gibson, R. S. (1994). Zinc nutrition in developing countries. Nutrition Research Review, 7 (1), 151-173.
[42]
International Zinc Association (2011). Zinc- Natural Occurrence. http://www.zinc.org/basics/zinc_natural_occurrence. Retrieved 12/11/2018.
[43]
Brown, K. H., Peerson, J. M., Rivera, J., and Allen, L. H. (2002). Effect of supplemental zinc on the growth and serum zinc concentrations of prepubertal children: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 75 (6), 1062–1071.
[44]
Fraker, P. J., and King, L. E. (2004). Reprogramming of the immune system during zinc deficiency. Annual Review in Nutrition, 24, 277–98.
Browse journals by subject