Volume 8, Issue 3, May 2020, Page: 63-73
Effects of Germination Temperature and Time on Malt Quality of Temash Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Alemu Girma Tura, Department of Food Process Engineering, Wolkite University, Wolkite, Ethiopia
Solomon Abera, Department of Food Technology and Process Engineering, Haramaya Institute of Technology, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia
Belay Dereje Olika, Department of Food Process Engineering, Wolkite University, Wolkite, Ethiopia
Teklu Chalcisa, Department of Food Process Engineering, Wolkite University, Wolkite, Ethiopia
Received: Jan. 31, 2020;       Accepted: Feb. 26, 2020;       Published: Jun. 23, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.jfns.20200803.13      View  160      Downloads  28
Abstract
Temash is one of barley varieties and traditionally used for kolo and malt. This study was conducted on its use for malt production. It was aimed to evaluate the effect of germination temperature and time on malt quality. The experiment consisted of the factorial design of two factors namely, germination temperature (15, 18 and 21°C) and germination time (3, 4 and 5 days), and was laid out in 3x3 completely randomized design with three replication. Each sample was steeped at room temperature (24°C) for 37 hrs and kilned at 50°C for 24 hrs. Samples subjected to treatments were evaluated for malt quality parameters. Temash grain proximate compositions were also analyzed. Regarding malt quality, germination at 18°C temperature for 4 days had better results with relatively higher hot water extraction and friability and lower weight loss. In the case of the grain quality requirements, temash grain fulfilled the acceptable range of the European Brewery Convention (EBC) and Asela Malt Factory Standard (Ethiopia).
Keywords
Germination, Malt Quality, Physical Properties, Temash Barley Grain
To cite this article
Alemu Girma Tura, Solomon Abera, Belay Dereje Olika, Teklu Chalcisa, Effects of Germination Temperature and Time on Malt Quality of Temash Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. Vol. 8, No. 3, 2020, pp. 63-73. doi: 10.11648/j.jfns.20200803.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
P. L. Morrell and M. T. Clegg, “Genetic evidence for a second domestication of barley (Hordeum vulgare) east of the Fertile Crescent,” vol. 2006.
[2]
S. E. Baik, B. K. and Ullrich, “Barley for food: characteristics, improvement, and renewed interest,” J. Cereal Sci., vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 233–242, 2008.
[3]
and J. G. H. Behall, K. M., D. J. Scholfield, “Barley β-glucan reduces plasma glucose and insulin responses compared with resistant starch in men.,” Nutr. Res., vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 644–650., 2006.
[4]
A. K. Holtekjølen, A. K. Uhlen, E. Bråthen, S. Sahlstrøm, and S. H. Knutsen, “Erratum to ‘Contents of starch and non-starch polysaccharides in barley varieties of different origin [Food Chemistry 94 (2006) 348-358]’ (DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.11.022),” Food Chem., vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 954–955, 2007, doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.06.002.
[5]
B. Kefale and Y. Abushu, “Malt Quality Profile of Malt Barley Varieties Grown in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia,” vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 130–134, 2017, doi: 10.11648/j.ijbc.20170203.18.
[6]
L. 1991. Berhane, “Barley A Dependence Cereal in Ethiopia,” IAR, News Lett. Agric. Res., 1991.
[7]
IFPRI, “Maize Value Chain in Ethiopia: Structure, Conduct, and Performance,” no. November, p. 81, 2015, doi: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2229.0804.
[8]
CSA, “The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Centeral Statistical Agency Agricultural Sample Survey 2017/18 (2010 E. C.): Report on area and production for major crops (private peasant holdings, Meher season),” Stat. Bull. No. 584, vol. I, p. 57, 2018.
[9]
A. Getachew, Legese., Sintayehu, Debebe. and Tolosa, “Assessing the uncompanative advantage of malt barley production in Ethiopia. Application of a Policy Analysis Matrix.,” 8th African Crop Sci. Soc. Conf. El-Minia, Egypt, pp. 1227–1230, 2007.
[10]
M. M. Elleni Kassie, Y. Awoke, and Z. Demesie, “Evaluation of Malt Barley (Hordeumdistichon L.) Genotypes for Grain Yield and Malting Quality Parameters at Koga Irrigation in Western Amhara Region,” Int. J. Plant Breed. Genet., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 13–18, 2018, doi: 10.3923/ijpbg.2018.13.18.
[11]
S.. Agbale, M. C., Adamafio, N. A., Agyeman, K. O. G. and Sackey, “Malting and brewing properties of selected cereals cultivated in Ghana.,” J. Ghana Sci. Assoc., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 146–155, 2007.
[12]
A. C. Ogbonna, “Current developments in malting and brewing trials with sorghum in Nigeria: A review,” J. Inst. Brew., vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 394–400, 2011, doi: 10.1002/j.2050-0416.2011.tb00485.x.
[13]
W. Fekadu and A. Ayana, “ORIGINAL ARTICLE Improvement in Grain Yield and Malting Quality of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Ethiopia,” no. January, 2013.
[14]
W. Fekadu, B. Lakew, and Z. Wondatir, “Advance in improving morpho-agronomic and grain quality traits of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Central Highland of Ethiopia,” vol. 1, no. March, pp. 11–26, 2014.
[15]
T. Hunduma, “Local Crop Genetic Resource Utilization and Management in Gindeberet, west central Ethiopia By Teshome Hunduma Local Crop Genetic Resource Utilization and Management in Gindeberet, west central Ethiopia.”
[16]
S. I. Mussatto, G. Dragone, and I. C. Roberto, “Brewers’ spent grain: Generation, characteristics and potential applications,” J. Cereal Sci., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2006, doi: 10.1016/j.jcs.2005.06.001.
[17]
American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC)., “American Association of Cereal Chemists Inc., 10th ed,” 2000.
[18]
Analytica-EBC., “European Brewing Convention Analysis Committee, 4th edition, Brauerei und Getrake, Rundschau, Zurich, Switzerland,” 1998.
[19]
J. L. Ahmed, A. M., Lydia, J., and Campbell, “Evaluation of baking properties and sensory quality of wheat-cowpea flour.,” World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol., 2012.
[20]
J. Taylor and J. Taylor, “Five Simple Methods for the Determination of Sorghum Grain End-Use Quality,” Int. Sorghum Millet Collab. Res. Support Progr. Sci. Publ., vol. 17, no. August 2008, pp. 2–18, 2008.
[21]
J. Dewar, J. R. N. Taylor, and P. Berjak, “Effect of germination conditions, with optimised steeping, on sorghum malt quality - With particular reference to free amino nitrogen,” J. Inst. Brew., vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 171–175, 1997, doi: 10.1002/j.2050-0416.1997.tb00946.x.
[22]
M. J. Edney, A. L. MacLeod, and D. E. LaBerge, “Evolution of a quality testing program for improving malting barley in Canada,” Can. J. Plant Sci., vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 535–544, 2014, doi: 10.4141/CJPS2013-118.
[23]
P. R. Shewry, “Principles of Cereal Science and Technology,” J. Cereal Sci., vol. 51, no. 3, p. 415, 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.jcs.2010.01.001.
[24]
T. Galano, G. Bultosa, and C. Fininsa, “Malt quality of 4 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown under low severity of net blotch at Holetta, west Shewa, Ethiopia,” African J. Biotechnol., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 797–806, 2011, doi: 10.5897/AJB09.346.
[25]
G. P. Fox, J. F. Panozzo, C. D. Li, R. C. M. Lance, P. A. Inkerman, and R. J. Henry, “Molecular basis of barley quality,” Aust. J. Agric. Res., vol. 54, no. 11–12, pp. 1081–1101, 2003, doi: 10.1071/ar02237.
[26]
A. D. K. and G. T. Madakemohekar AH., Talekar NS, “Scope of Hulless Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as a Nutritious and Medicinal Food,” Acta Sci. Agric., vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 11-13., 2018.
[27]
M. A. Mendez-Encinas, E. Carvajal-Millan, A. Rascon-Chu, H. F. Astiazaran-Garcia, and D. E. Valencia-Rivera, “Ferulated Arabinoxylans and Their Gels: Functional Properties and Potential Application as Antioxidant and Anticancer Agent,” Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev., vol. 2018, 2018, doi: 10.1155/2018/2314759.
[28]
Y. Abeshu and E. Abrha, “Evaluation of Proximate and Mineral Composition Profile for Different Food Barley Varieties Grown in Central Highlands of Ethiopia,” World J. Food Sci. Technol., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 97–100, 2017, doi: 10.11648/j.wjfst.20170103.12.
[29]
G. H. Singkhornart, S. and Ryu, “Effect of Soaking Time and Steeping Temperature on Biochemical Properties and γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Content of Germinated Wheat and Barley. Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, 16 (1): Singkhornart, S. and Ryu, G. H. 2011. Effect of Soaking Time and S,” Prev. Nutr. Food Sci., vol. 16, no. 1, p. Singkhornart, S. and Ryu, G. H. 2011. Effect of Soa, 2011.
[30]
O. N. A. and E.. F. Fasoyiro, S. B., S. R. Ajibade, A. J. omale, “Proximate, mineral and anti-nutritinal factors of some underutilized grain in south-westrn Nigeria.,” Nutr. food Sci., vol. 36, pp. 18–23, 2006.
[31]
P. U. Farooqui, A. S., Syed, H. M., Talpade, N. N., Sontakke, M. D. and Ghatge, “Influence of germination on chemical and nutritional properties of Barley flour.,” J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 3855-3858., 2018.
[32]
O. B. Ocheme, O. E. Adedeji, C. E. Chinma, C. M. Yakubu, and U. H. Ajibo, “Proximate composition, functional, and pasting properties of wheat and groundnut protein concentrate flour blends,” Food Sci. Nutr., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 1173–1178, 2018, doi: 10.1002/fsn3.670.
[33]
A. Sýkorová, E. Šárka, Z. Bubník, M. Schejbal, and P. Dostálek, “Size distribution of barley kernels,” Czech J. Food Sci., vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 249–258, 2009, doi: 10.17221/26/2009-cjfs.
[34]
E. Gursoy, S. and Guzel, “Determination of physical properties of some agricultural grains.,” Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 492–498, 2010.
[35]
M. R. Bhise, S. R., Kaur, A. and Manikantan, “Mositure dependent physical properties of wheat grain (PBW 621). I, 3 (2): 40-4,” International J. Eng. Pract. Res., vol. 5, 2014.
[36]
S. M. T.-Z. Mahmoud Tavakoli, Hamed Tavakoli, Ali Rajabipour, Hojat Ahmadi, “Moisture-dependent physical properties of barley grains.,” Int J Agric Biol Eng, vol. 2, no. 9, p. 84-91., 2009.
[37]
A. Bekele, G. Bultosa, and K. Belete, “The effect of germination time on malt quality of six sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) varieties grown at Melkassa, Ethiopia,” J. Inst. Brew., vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 76–81, 2012, doi: 10.1002/jib.19.
[38]
D. Kumar, V. Kumar, R. P. S. Verma, A. S. Kharub, and I. Sharma, “Quality parameter requirement and standards for malt barley-A review,” Agric. Rev., vol. 34, no. 4, p. 313, 2013, doi: 10.5958/j.0976-0741.34.4.018.
[39]
and B. L. Kefale, Biadge, Ashagrie Zewdu, “Assessment of Malt Quality Attributes of Barley Genotypes grown in Bekoji, Holeta and Ankober, Ethiopia.,” cad. Res. J. Agri. Sci. Res, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 255–263, 2016.
[40]
A. Royal, “old Central European cultivars. 7 Forexample, the European,” vol. 92, pp. 604–607, 1986.
[41]
M. O.. Owuama C. I., and Adeyemo, “Effect of Different Sorghum Varieties on Beer. Quality,” Biosci. Res. Commun., vol. 20, no. 5, 2008.
[42]
F.-L. F, “Stored grain: physicochemical treatment,” Elsevier Acad. Press., vol. 3, pp. 254-263., 2004.
[43]
A. Hassani, M. Zarnkow, and T. Becker, “Influence of malting conditions on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as a raw material for fermented beverages,” Food Sci. Technol. Int., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 453–463, 2014, doi: 10.1177/1082013213490710.
[44]
R. S. Bhatty, “Production of food malt from hull-less barley,” Cereal Chem., vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 75–80, 1996.
Browse journals by subject