Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2015, Page: 209-215
Nutrient Intake and Immune Status of HIV Sero-positive Patients in a Comprehensive Care Clinic at Chulaimbo Sub-district Hospital, Kenya
Agatha Christine Onyango, Department of Nutrition and Health, School of Public Health and Community Development, Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya
Mary Khakoni Walingo, Department of Nutrition and Health, School of Public Health and Community Development, Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya
Grace Mbagaya, Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, School of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya
Rose Kakai, Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya
Received: Sep. 8, 2015;       Accepted: Sep. 29, 2015;       Published: Oct. 27, 2015
DOI: 10.11648/j.jfns.20150306.12      View  3430      Downloads  75
Abstract
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and nutrition status of human are linked to HIV infection and poor nutrient intake can speed the disease progress. Both macro-and micronutrient deficiencies could impair host immune functions and promote viral replication and pathogenicity, thus potentially affecting the clinical course of HIV infection. The objective was to assess the immune status and nutrient intake of HIV sero-positive patients. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 497 People Living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) attending clinic at Chulaimbo Sub-district hospital in Kenya. CD4 cell count was used to assess immune status and a 24-hour dietary recall survey to capture the average macronutrient and micronutrient intake of the patients. Nutrient intake was estimated using a diet history in combination with a standardized food frequency questionnaire. The study setting was with the Academic Model for Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS (AMPATH) clinic at Chulaimbo Sub-district hospital, Kisumu West District, Kenya, and comprised of 497 adults aged 18–60 years. After 6 months, it was found that there was a higher proportion of the males in stage three and four 65 (61.9%) compared to the females 173 (44.3%) Majority of the patients were within the normal range for WBC (4000-11000 cell/mm3) and platelet count (130000-440000 cell/mm3) but there was a drop below the normal range for CD4 cell count (600-1200 cell/mm3) and CD4 cell percentage (30-60%) were below the normal range. There were more male patients in the third (severe) category compared to the female patients. There was inadequate nutrient intake among the mild, moderate and severe categories with exception of the thiamine intake. The results confirm that majority of the HIV/AIDS patients from this population are malnourished and majority of the male patients had their CD4 below the normal range. Adequate nutritionist important and nutrient supplementation of HIV/AIDS patients should be considered, as this might lead to improved immune function in these patients.
Keywords
Nutrient Adequacy, CD4, Food Group, Immune Status, HIV
To cite this article
Agatha Christine Onyango, Mary Khakoni Walingo, Grace Mbagaya, Rose Kakai, Nutrient Intake and Immune Status of HIV Sero-positive Patients in a Comprehensive Care Clinic at Chulaimbo Sub-district Hospital, Kenya, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2015, pp. 209-215. doi: 10.11648/j.jfns.20150306.12
Reference
[1]
Macallan, D. C. (1999). Nutrition and Immune Function in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the Nutrition Society.
[2]
Hoffmann, C., Rockstroh, J. K., & Kamps, B. S. (2007). HIV Medicine 2007.
[3]
Baum, M. K., & Shor-Posner, G. (1998). Micronutrient Status in Relationship to Mortality in HIV-1 Disease. Nutrition Reviews, 56 (1), S135-S139.
[4]
Semba, R. D., & Tang, A. M. (1999). Micronutrients and the Pathogenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. British Journal of Nutrition, 81, 181-189.
[5]
Friis, H. (2006). Micronutrient interventions and HIV infection: A Review of Current Evidence Interventions aux Micronutriments dans l'infection VIH: Une Revue de l’évidence Courante Intervenciones Con Micronutrientes e Infección Por VIH: Una Revisión de la Evidencia Actual. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 11 (12), 1849-1857.
[6]
Gershwin, E. M., German, B. J., & Keen, L. C. (Eds.). (2000). Nutrition and Immunology: Principles and Practice. Totowa, New Jersey. Humana Press. Inc.
[7]
Schwarz, K. B. (1996). Oxidative Stress during Viral Infection: A Review, Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 5, 641-649.
[8]
Resnicow, K., Odom, E., Wang, T., Dudley W.N., Mitchell D., Vaughan R., et al. (2000). Validation of Three Food Frequency Questionnaires and 24-Hour Recalls with Serum Carotenoid Levels in a Sample of African-American Adults. American Journal of Epidemiology, 152 (11), 1072-1080.
[9]
Hammond, K., A. (2004). Dietary and Clinical Assessment (11th Ed. Vol. 372). Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co: 372.
[10]
Hatløy, A., Torheim, L. E., & Oshaug A. (1998). Food Variety – A Good Indicator of Nutritional Adequacy of the Diet? A Case Study from an Urban Area in Mali, West Africa. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 52, 891-898.
[11]
Sehmi, J. R. (1993). National Food Composition Tables and the Planning of Satisfactory Diets in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya: Government Printer.
[12]
WHO. (2005). Consultation on Nutrition and HIV/AIDS in Africa. Durban, South Africa: Consultation on Nutrition and HIV/AIDS in Africa, Durban, South Africa, April 10th-13th, 2005.
[13]
Johns, T. (2001). Dietary Diversity, Global Change, and Human Health. Quebec, Canada Macdonald University, STE.
[14]
FANTA. (2004). A guide for Nutrition Care and Support. Washington DC: Academic for Educational Development.
[15]
Friis, H., & Michaelsen, K. F. (1998). Micronutrients in HIV Infection: A Review. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 52, 157-163.
Browse journals by subject