Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2015, Page: 131-138
Sensory Performance, Proximate and Antioxidant Activity of Tea from Composite Formulation of Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia multiflora and Ganoderma lucidum
Courage Sedem Dzah, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, Ho Polytechnic, Ghana
Received: May 2, 2015;       Accepted: May 15, 2015;       Published: May 26, 2015
DOI: 10.11648/j.jfns.20150303.19      View  4095      Downloads  157
Abstract
Commercially produced herbal green teas consumed in Ghana are mostly those imported into the country. However, there are many plants such as “Srenunum” (Lippia multiflora) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), that are used by Ghanaians to brew herbal tea. The objectives of this study were to develop a tea product from the aforementioned herbs and “reishi” (Ganoderma lucidum), a medicinal mushroom. Three formulations (A, B and C) were produced according to the respective percentages (50:30:20, 30:20:50 and 20:50:30 for G. lucidum: L. multiflora: C. citratus). Formulation A came out as the most liked tea through an affective test (7 point hedonic scale) which was then compared to a known control (Lipton-yellow label) by chemical, proximate, antioxidant activity determination and sensory evaluation. The two tea samples (Tea A and Lipton) differed significantly with respect to aroma, colour, after taste and overall acceptability (p < 0.05). Tea A had significantly higher values for proteins, crude fibre and ash contents than Lipton in terms of their proximate compositions whereas Lipton contained higher levels of moisture and lipids (P< 0.05). For increasing concentrations of tea samples (10, 15, 20, 30, 50 µL) used in antioxidant activity determination, tea A recorded between 59.07 and 88.91mgTE/g, significantly higher than for Lipton (between 22.81 and 34.45mgTE/g) (P < 0.05). Given the high performance of Tea A, G. lucidum, L. multiflora and C. citratus can be successfully used to produce tea of equally good quality to encourage local consumption of indigenous herbs as well as reduce tea imports.
Keywords
Cymbopogon citratus, Herbal Tea, Lippia multiflora, Ganoderma lucidum
To cite this article
Courage Sedem Dzah, Sensory Performance, Proximate and Antioxidant Activity of Tea from Composite Formulation of Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia multiflora and Ganoderma lucidum, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2015, pp. 131-138. doi: 10.11648/j.jfns.20150303.19
Reference
[1]
Cheng, T.O. 2004. Will green tea be even better than black tea to increase coronary flow velocity reserve? American Journal of Cardiology. 94:12-23.
[2]
Ameyaw, Y. 2009. A growth regulator for the propagation of Lippia multiflora Moldenke, a herbal for the management of mild hypertension. Ghana Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 3(9): 681- 685.
[3]
Folashade, K.O. and Omoregie, E.H. 2012. Essential oil of Lippia multiflora Moldenke: A review. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2(1):15-23.
[4]
Ekissi, A.C., Konan, A.G., Yao-Kouame, A., Bonfoh, B. and Kati-Coulibaly, S. 2014. Sensory Evaluation of green tea from Lippia multiflora Moldenke leaves. European Scientific Journal. 10(3):536-545.
[5]
Carlin, E., Contar, D.P. and Silva-Filho, J. 1986. Pharmacology of lemon grass (Cymbopogon Stapf): Effects of teas prepared from leaves on laboratory animals. Journal of Ethnophamacology.17(1):37-64.
[6]
Nambiar, V.S. and Matela, H. 2012. Potential Functions of Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon) in Health and Disease.International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives. 3(5):1035-1043.
[7]
Srivastava, V., Dubey, S. and Mishra, A. 2013. Areview on Lemongrass: Agricultural and Medicinal Aspect. International Research Journal of Pharmacy. 4(8):42-44.
[8]
Olorunnisola, S.K., Asiyanbi, H.T., Hammed, A.M. and Simsek, S. 2014. Biological properties of lemongrass: An overview. International Food Research Journal. 21(2):455-462.
[9]
Peters, U., Charles, P. and Lenore, A. 2001. Does Tea Affect Cardiovascular Disease? A Meta-Analysis.American Journal of Epidemiology. 154(6):495-503.
[10]
Rietveld, A. and Wiseman, S. 2003. Antioxidant Effects of Tea: Evidence from Human Clinical Trials. American Society for Nutritional Sciences. Proceedings of the Third International Scientific Symposium on Tea and Human Health: Role of Flavonoids in the Diet. Pages 3285-3292.
[11]
Pooley, E. 1998. A field guide to wild flowers: Kwazulu-Natal and the Eastern region, Durban: Natal Flora Publications Trust.Durban. Pages 420 - 421.
[12]
Pascual, E., Slowing, K., Carretero, E., Sánchez-Mata, D., and Villar, A. 2001. Lippia: traditional uses, chemistry and pharmacology: a review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 76:201-214.
[13]
Benoît-Vical, F., Valentin, A., Pelissier, Y., Marion, C., Milhan, M., Maillie, M., Bastide, J. M., Diafouka, F., Kone, B. D., Malan, A., Kone, M., Loukou, Y., Monet D., Ake, A. and Yapo, A. 1996. Confirmation in vitro de l'activité antimalarique de certaines plantes d'origine Africaine utilisées en medicine traditionnelle. Médecine d'Afrique noire.43(7): 393-400.
[14]
Sanodiya, B.S., Thakur, G.S., Baghel, R.K., Prasad, G.B. and Bisen, P.S. 2009. Ganoderma lucidum: a potent pharmacological macrofungus. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 10(8):717-742.
[15]
Chen, N.H., Liu, J.W. and Zhong, J.J. 2010. Ganoderic acid T inhibits tumor invasion in vitro and in vivo through inhibition of MMP expression. Pharmacological reports: PR.62(1):150-163.
[16]
Smina, T.P., Mathew, J., Janardhanan, K.K., Devasagayam, T.P. 2011. Antioxidant activity and toxicity profile of total triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst occurring in South India. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 32(3):438-446.
[17]
Hanaoka, R., Ueno, Y., Tanaka, S., Nagai, K., Onitake, T., Yoshioka, K. and Chayama, K.2011. The water-soluble extract from cultured medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) mycelia (Designated as MAK) ameliorates murine colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. 74(5):454-462.
[18]
Chui, H., Wong, S., Cheng, Y., Lau, Y., Kok, H., Cheng, H., Cheung, F., Tang, K., Teo, T., Chan, S., et al. 2002. Antiproliferative ability of a combination regimen of crocodile egg extract, wild radix ginseng and natural Ganoderma lucidum on acute myelogenous leukemia. Oncology Report.16:1313–1316.
[19]
AOAC. 2005. Official Method of Analysis (18th Ed.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists International, Maryland, USA.
[20]
Dzah, C.S. 2014. Influence of fruit maturity on antioxidant potential andchilling injury resistance of peach fruit (Prunus persica)during cold storage. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 14(7):9578-9591.
[21]
Martinez, M.N. and Amidon,G.L. 2002. A Mechanistic Approach to Understanding the Factors Affecting Drug Absorption: A Review of Fundamentals. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 42:620-643.
[22]
Chin, S.K., Law, C.L. and Cheng, P.G. 2011. Effect of drying on crude ganoderic acids and water soluble polysaccharides content in Ganoderma lucidum. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 3(1):38-43.
[23]
Ekissi, A.C., Yao-Kouame, A., Konan, A.G., Alui, K.A., Agbo, N.G. and Kati-Coulibaly, S. 2013. Manufacturing Process and Various uses of Savannah Herbal Tea (Lippia multiflora) in Côte d’Ivoire. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. 3(8):597-608.
[24]
Khan, M.A., Khan, L.A., Hossain, M.S., Tania, M. and Uddin, M.N. 2009. Investigation on the Nutritional Composition of Common Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms Cultivated in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Mushroom. 3(1): 21-28.
[25]
Ekissi, A.C., Konan, A.G., Yao-Kouame, A., Bonfoh, B. and Kati-Coulibaly, S. 2011. Evaluation of the chemical constituents of savannah tea (Lippia multiflora) leaves. Journal of Applied Biosciences. 42:2854-2858.
[26]
St. Jeor, S.T., Howard, B.V., Prewitt, E., Bovee, V., Bazzarre, T. and Eckel, R.H. 2001. A statement for healthcare professionals from the nutrition committee of the council on nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism of the American Heart Association. Circulation 104:1869-1874.
[27]
Pêcher, C., Pécourt, A., Noël, A.-R., Dacremont, C. and Valentin, D. 2012. Identifying drivers of consumers’ choice to develop new cooking devices. In: Valentin D, Pêcher C, Nguyen DH, Chambers D and Abdi H (eds). Integrating sensory evaluation into product development: An Asian perspective. Proceedings of SPISE-Summer Program in Sensory Evaluation. 3rd International Symposium, Vietnam.
[28]
Petravić, T.V., Kovačević, G.K., Komes, D., Gracin, L., Banović, M. and Marić, V. 2008.Influence of media composition and temperature on volatile aroma production by various wine yeaststrains. Czech Journal of Food Science.26:376–382.
[29]
Dagupen, M.K., Januszewska, R., Lino, L.L., Tagarino, D., Viaene, J., Arguelles, R. and Bautista, R. 2009. Consumer behavior towards lemongrass (Cymbopogon) tea in Benguet Province, Northern Philippines. BANWA. 6(2):1–12.
[30]
De-Heer, N.E.A., Twumasi, P., Tandoh, M.A., Ankar-Brewoo, G.and Oduro, I. 2013. Formulation and sensory evaluation of herb tea from Moringa oleifera, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Cymbopogon. Journal of the Ghana Science Association. 15(1):53–62.
[31]
Nishitoba, T., Sato, H., Kasai, T., Kawagishi, H. and Sakamura, S. 1985. New bitter C27 and C30 terpenoids from the fungus Ganoderma lucidum. Agric. Boil. Chem. 49:1793–1798.
[32]
Liu, X., Yuana, J.-P. and Chen, X.-J. 2002. Antitumor activity of the sporoderm-broken germinating spores of Ganoderma lucidum. Cancer Letters. 182:155–161.
[33]
Moors, E.H. 2012. Functional foods: regulation and innovations in the EU. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research. 25(4):424-440.
[34]
Asthana, A., Larson, R.A., Marley, K.A. and Tuveson, R.W. 1992. Mechanisms of citral phototoxicity. Phytochemistry and Photobiology. 56:211-222.
[35]
Khwaja, S., Hussain, A., Hussain, H. and Faiyazuddin, M. 2013. Insight to lemongrass essential oil as phytomedicine: state of the art and future perspectives. Asian Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Research.2(3):87 - 96.
[36]
Yao-Kouame, A. and Kane, F. 2008. Biochemical Characteristics of Lippia multifora (Verbenaceae) Leaves with Respect to Fertilizer Applied to the Soil. Journal of Plant Sciences.3: 287-291.
[37]
Juliani, H.R., Wang, M., Moharram, H., Asante-Dartey, J., Acquaye, D., Koroch, A.R. and Simon, J.E. 2006. Intraspecific Variation in Quality Control Parameters, Polyphenol Profile, and Antioxidant Activity in Wild Populations of Lippia multiflora from Ghana. In Herbs: Challenges in Chemistry and Biology pp 126–142, American Chemical Society Press.
[38]
Agarwal, K., Chakarborthy, G.S. and Verma, S. 2012. In vitro antioxidant activity of different extract of Ganoderma lucidum. DHR International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 3(1):48-54.
Browse journals by subject